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How will Ukrainian exports be organized?

Как ще се организира украинският износ?
Months after a Turkey-brokered deal on Black Sea grain exports between Ukraine and Russia collapsed, the international community is still unable to find an adequate alternative.

Land export options met with resistance from countries close to the conflict, and eventually the EU realized that they were unable to replace the volumes exported by water.

Ukraine has tried to build its own route, which 12 ships have passed through, but the risks are too great for it to be established as a safe corridor. Germany has announced that it intends to supply Ukraine with new air defense systems to help Kiev protect grain ships from possible Russian attacks.

Government sources said Germany will send Ukraine a new IRIS-T defense system as well as "more than a dozen" Gepard air defense tanks. These air defense systems, due to arrive in Ukraine by the end of this year, will provide protection to grain ships heading to Romania along Ukraine's southern coast.

Another discussed route for exports from Ukraine is partly overland and connected to the Baltic Sea. In this case, Poland and Lithuania will act together to use their ports to export Ukrainian grain – Warsaw sets the pace and Vilnius supports it. The Lithuanian port of Klaipeda will play a major role in this plan. Anyway, in this version, the EU presents Warsaw and Vilnius as one common solution.

The third solution is again a mix between land and water, targeting the Adriatic Sea and the ports of Croatia, mainly Rijeka in the western part of the country. The route starts in Ukraine by rail, passes through Hungary and Slovakia to reach the Croatian port on the Dalmatian coast, from where the grain will be exported by water.

Greece came up with a fourth proposal, which, according to world analysts, aims on the one hand to support Ukrainian exports, but on the other - to displace Turkey from its role as a mediator between the warring countries.

Athens held discussions in Brussels with its EU partners and members of the European Commission, as well as officials in London who play an important role in decision-making regarding Ukraine, and eventually produced a proposal that included the use of the two main ports in Northern Greece - Thessaloniki and Alexandroupolis.

Based on this plan, the grain will be transported by rail from Ukraine through Romania and Bulgaria, and from there by water. The two ports of Thessaloniki and Alexandroupolis have the capacity to receive the necessary vessels for this activity.

However, there are issues related to the capacity of the railway network in Northern Greece. If this corridor is given a vote of confidence, it will take time to finalize the infrastructure works, especially on the Alexandroupolis - Ormenio route

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